The coexistence of the brown bear (Ursus actos Linnaeus, 1758) and farmers in the Pyrenees has been a major concern for several decades. Bear's depredation on livestock has multiple implications for traditional practices of extensive grazing, and calls for a better understanding of the various ways in which humans and non-humans interact across different territories. The present dataset stems from the "Pastoralism and Bears in the Pyrenees" research project led by the GEODE laboratory (UMR 5602 CNRS-UT2J) in partnership with the Association Dissonances. This project proposes to explore the definition of coexistence based on context-dependant and constantly evolving relationships between bears and pastoral activity. As part of an interdisciplinary approach combining animal geography and ecology, the spatio-temporal activity of the different species was explored using a network of 118 camera traps. The 118 camera traps were installed on the summer pastures while livestock was present in the mountains, between May and October, from 2021 to 2023, and were set in a 400 m X 400 m grid covering a total area of around 2,000 Ha. The present dataset contains 57,928 occurrences of 22 taxon categories, including 19 identified species, two family categories (equids and mustelids) and one class category (birds). As pastoral activity is very present in these areas, livestock (sheep, equids, cows, goats) accounts for 16,207 occurrences across the three pastures. The three main wild species captured over the three years and three pastures were the red deer (9,517 occurrences), red fox (9,400 occurrences) and wild boar (4,017 occurrences). Although the sampling effort of each camera, in days, is indicated in the dataset (e.g. 134 days), the details of the functioning days of each camera for each pasture can be found on the following DOI : https://doi.org/10.48579/PRO/XUSK8V, in order to locate data gaps over time and distinguish them from periods without captures events. Data are aggregated at the grid scale. Nonetheless, the exact locations of each camera trap as well as the photos can be requested from us.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 57,928 records.
1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
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The publisher and rights holder of this work is UMR 5602 GEODE Géographie de l’environnement (CNRS/Université Toulouse 2). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC 4.0) License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: fefe45aa-0d87-4cfd-b8fc-decee91fc2fc. UMR 5602 GEODE Géographie de l’environnement (CNRS/Université Toulouse 2) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF France.
Monitoring; Cameras; Wildlife; Pastoralism; Ursus arctos; Grazing lands; Ariège; Occurrence
- Metadata Provider ●
- Metadata Provider ●
The present study focuses on three Pyrenean summer pastures, Arreau (around 890 Ha), Barestet (around 645 Ha) and Ourdouas (around 527 Ha), two of which are located in the Ariège department, and one of which is located in both the department of Ariège and Haute-Garonne, France. The three pastures are respectively part of one, two and one municipalities: Seix, Melles – Saint-Lary, Sentein.
|South West [42.755, 0.821], North East [42.924, 1.148]
Whenever possible, the taxonomic identification was made at the species level. Due to study objectives and identification difficulties, birds, equids, and mustelids were not identified to the species level but at the class level or at the family level, except for Western capercaillie and European badger. Thus, a total of one class, two families and nineteen species were recorded.
|Equidae (Equids), Mustelidae (Mustelids)
|Bos taurus (Cow), Canis familiaris (Dog), Capra hircus (Feral goat), Capreolus capreolus (Roe deer), Cervus elaphus (Red deer), Felis silvestris (Wildcat), Lepus europaeus (European hare), Marmota marmota (Alpine marmot), Meles meles (European badger), Ovis aries (Sheep), Rupicapra rupicapra (Pyrenean chamois), Sciurus vulgaris (Eurasian red squirrel), Sus scrofa (Wild boar), Tetrao urogallus (Western capercaillie), Usrus arctos (Brown bear), Vulpes vulpes (Red fox), Dama dama (Fallow deer), Erinaceus europaeus (West european hedgehog), Genetta genetta (Common genet)
|Start Date / End Date
|2021-05-12 / 2021-10-20
|Start Date / End Date
|2022-05-02 / 2022-10-23
|Start Date / End Date
|2023-05-03 / 2023-10-23
No Description available
|Camera-trapping: wild and domestic species occurrences in three Pyrenean pastures
|Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Direction régionale de l'Environnement, de l'Aménagement et du Logement (DREAL Occitanie), Fondation François Sommer, Office français de la biodiversité (OFB).
|Study Area Description
|The study was conducted in three Pyrenean summer pastures, Arreau, Barestet and Ourdouas, two of which are located in the Ariège district, and one of which is located in both the districts of Ariège and of Haute-Garonne, France. The three pastures are mainly represented by open habitats with vegetation composed of short grassy lawns and heaths with rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L., 1753), calluna (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, 1808), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L., 1753) and juniper (Juniperus communis L., 1753), but also present variable surfaces of deciduous and coniferous forests (e.g. beech-fir forests). The pastures are grazed by livestock from May/June to October, following a grazing rotation system. The pastures are all located within the Ariège Pyrenees Regional Nature Park, and are also all located wholly or partly within Natura 2000 areas. The Barestet pasture is partly located in the ZSC (Special Area of Conservation) and ZPS (Special Protection Area) of the "Haute Vallée de la Garonne". The Ourdouas pasture is located in the ZSC and ZPS of "Vallée de l'Isard, Mail de Bulard, Pic de Maubermé, Pic de Serre-Haute and Pic du Crabère". The Arreau pasture is located in the ZPS "Massif du Mont Valier", and partly in the ZSC "Vallée du Riberot and Massif du Mont Valier". The Arreau pasture is also located in the Mont Valier State Reserve. The Arreau pasture is located on the municipality of Seix. It is the largest pasture since it reaches nearly 890 Ha, and ranges from 1,350 m to 2,470 m of elevation. The pasture presents landscapes with calcareous and schist facies, dominated by heaths (76 %) and grassy lawns (20 %). Percentages were calculated using QGIS 3.14 (http://www.qgis.org) and based on the OSO 2021 land cover layer (value-added data processed by CNES for the Theia data centre www.theia.land.fr from Copernicus data. The processing uses algorithms developed by Theia's Scientific Expertise Centres). The relief is varied, with rocky bars, scree, sometimes very steep slopes, but also streams with variable flow, a permanent pond and other fluctuating water surfaces. This pasture is the least forested with only 3 % of deciduous and/or coniferous forests. The anthropic frequentation of the pasture is divided into two parts, i) the pastoral activity of the site with the grazing of about 1,900 sheep, and around 100 cows, horses and donkeys, and ii) the touristic activity favoured by the track crossing the pasture from the Col de Pause to the Port d'Aula, and by the presence of cabins and the GR10. Pastoral activity in the pasture also includes six herding dogs and three guarding dogs. The Barestet pasture, located on the communes of Melles (Haute-Garonne) and Saint-Lary (Ariège), occupies a surface of 670 Ha and ranges from 1,100 m to 2,150 m of elevation. This pasture is elongated, following a ridge linking the Cap de Gauch in the South, the highest point of the pasture, to the Puech in the North. Although heaths dominate the landscape (51 %), this pasture is the most forested one, with 37 % of the surface occupied by deciduous and/or coniferous forests. It also presents 12 % of grassy lawns, and as the lowest pasture, its relief is relatively moderate. Because of its accessibility and its hiking trails, part of the pasture is visited by a relatively large number of users, including tourists and hunters, with, for example, the occasional organization of trail races. In addition to this frequentation, the pasture is used for pastoral activity, including the grazing of about 800 sheep, around 60 horses and donkeys, and five goats. Pastoral activity in the pasture also includes two herding dogs and no guarding dogs at all. The Ourdouas pasture is located on the municipality of Sentein, occupies a surface of 527 Ha, and ranges from 1,050 m to 2,420 m of altitude, whose highest point is the Pic de l'Har. The rather steep landscapes, including a large scree, are dominated by heaths (71 %), but also present areas of deciduous and/or coniferous forests (19 %) and grassy lawns (7 %). The anthropic frequentation of the pasture is mainly due to the grazing of about 700 sheep, 25 cows and around 10 horses and donkeys. In addition, hunting activities take place in the pasture, and the tourist frequentation is quite reduced, which might be because of the absence of big hiking trails. Pastoral activity in the pasture also includes two herding dogs and five guarding dogs.
The personnel involved in the project:
The sampling was conducted following a regular grid of 400 m X 400 m cells, in which one camera was installed on a location of potential passages of the mammalian fauna (e.g. path, trail, mountain pass, thinning of vegetation, etc.). Depending on the vegetation and the configuration of the site, the cameras were installed on a tree or on a stake, at a height varying from 50 cm to 1 m from the ground, at approximately 3 meters and perpendicular to the potential path of the animal. Cameras were set to take 3 photos without delay between consecutive triggers, in burst mode as long as motion was detected. Cameras automatically recorded date, time, moon phase, temperature of the capture events and the unique station’s label. Each camera was checked approximately every three weeks for data recovery, battery replacement and camera maintenance. Despite regular and frequent monitoring of the camera traps throughout the study period, some traps did not operate continuously over the study period due to various technical problems, thefts or damages by cattle. Although the sampling effort of each camera, in days, is indicated in the dataset (e.g. 134 days), the details of the functioning days of each camera for each pasture can be found on the following DOI : https://doi.org/10.48579/PRO/XUSK8V, in order to locate data gaps over time and distinguish them from periods without captures events. During the entire study period, a total of 49,271 trap-days were sampled (2021: 14,535 trap-days; 2022: 17,181 trap-days; 2023: 17,555 trap-days). The obtained pictures were manually identified on Timelapse Software (see https://saul.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/timelapse/pmwiki.php?n=Main.Licence). For wild species, two pictures separated by a time interval of at least two minutes were considered as different capture events. When a capture event was recorded, only the first photo where the species was identifiable was annotated (i.e. species, temperature, date, time, number of individu-als). When different individuals of the same species appeared later in the same capture event, the total number of individuals in the capture event was filled in the first annotated photo. However, if an individual of another species appeared later in the same capture event, a new photo was anno-tated as the first identifiable photo of the species. Consequently, the date and time indicated for each capture event does not necessarily correspond to the exact number of individuals passing through at that precise time, but rather to the start of an event of variable duration containing that number of individuals. In some rare cases, two photos separated by an interval of more than two minutes were considered as a single capture event. For example, an individual may have been sleeping in front of the camera, triggering it only occasionally. In such cases, a single event was recorded. Regarding livestock (i.e. cows, equids, goats, sheep), the photos were annotated on the basis of an hour's time. Thus, minimum time interval between two consecutive capture events was one hour. In addition, as their behaviour can involve long periods of static in front of the cameras, in cases where a domestic species was continuously recorded for several hours, a new capture event was registered every hour after the start of the event. Moreover, for livestock data, the number of individuals was not recorded precisely, since it mainly corresponded to the passage of herds. Thus, the value entered in the dataset is “many”. Precise number of individuals was only registered when an event showed only five sheep or less in order to identify isolated groups of sheep, which was relevant to answer the study goals. The dataset provided contains rows corresponding to each occurrence, and therefore only shows information corresponding to the single annotated photo in each capture event. When two species appeared at the same time in a photo, the photo was annotated with both species, inducing two occurrences for one capture event. In the dataset, the row for this capture event was duplicated to obtain one row per occurrence.
|The present dataset was collected during three sampling campaigns carried out between May and October 2021, 2022, 2023, on three mountain pastures located in the Ariège Pyrenees. 118 motion-triggered infrared cameras (Reconyx® Hyperfire 2) were set on the three mountain pastures (Arreau: 53 cameras, Barestet: 36 cameras, Ourdouas: 29 cameras). As a result of an excessive number of thefts during the three campaigns, one camera has been removed from the Barestet pasture, and data from the three years has been removed from the dataset (dataset from 118 cameras instead of the 119 initially installed in 2021). Depending on the pastures and the years, according to the field constraints, the sampling started and ended at variable dates but at least between the 12th of June and the 6th of October. Insofar as the project is likely to continue, the present dataset may evolve, following the same protocol, being supplemented by additional years of data on one or more pastures.
|The species identification of all tagged photos has been double-checked by the authors. At the first identification, the error rate was 0.32 %, and these identified errors were corrected at the second verification, bringing the final error rate to nearly 0 %. Potential gaps (e.g. missing temperature information), have also been checked and photos of humans were systematically removed from the dataset.
Method step description:
- The study areas – three mountain pastures in Ariège - were selected on the basis of criteria relevant to the project (e.g. differences in pastoral activity, confirmed and dense bear presence, accessibility, etc.). The choice of sectors was also dictated by the agreement of the pastoral groups present on the pastures to host the project for at least three years. Authorizations to use vehicles on the tracks approaching the pastures, and authorizations to set photographic traps were then requested to the manager of these territories, in this case the Office national des forêts (ONF, which oversees the integrity of the forest estate, the conservation of structures and the protection of forest stands and natural environments, as well as the management of wildlife and hunting). A 400 m X 400 m grid covering the entire surface of each mountain pasture was chosen according to the objectives of the study, and the location of the camera traps in each grid cell was chosen according to the most suitable place for fauna to pass (e.g. path, trail, mountain pass, thinning of vegetation, etc.). When the camera traps were installed, the main habitat in which the cameras were installed was noted. As this information was not necessary for the project's objectives, habitat characterization was done on sight and in an arbitrary manner. The cameras, set to take 3 photos without delay between consecutive triggers, in burst mode as long as motion was detected, were installed approximately between May and October of the three years of the project depending on field constraints (e.g. snow cover), and were checked approximately every three weeks. The data collected was processed using Timelapse software, according to the photo completion protocol explained above. Photos have been identified at class, family or species level, and photos of humans were systematically removed from the dataset. The dataset was then checked to control identification errors and potential gaps (e.g. missing temperature information), and to standardize the data. The dataset, deposited on the Global Biodiversity Information Facility platform (GBIF), was standardised in Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) format to create an occurrence dataset corresponding to the standards recommended by Darwin Core.
In this dataset, each row corresponds to an occurrence. As an occurrence is part of a capture event composed of several photographs of the individual, each row corresponds to the single annotated photo in each capture event. When two species appeared at the same time in a photo, the photo was annotated with both species, inducing two occurrences for one capture event. In the dataset, the row for this capture event was duplicated to obtain one row per occurrence. With a view to preserving areas of quietude, life and passage for sensitive species, the GPS locations of brown bear and capercaillie occurrences, respectively classified as critically endangered and vulnerable on the French red list, have been blurred. The coordinates shown correspond to the centroids of each summer pasture. For all other species, the location of each passage is given at the scale of the 400 m X 400 m grid cell centroid in which the camera trap that recorded the passage is installed. While the dataset therefore only shows points (two centroid scales), the geometry of each grid cell can be found in the additional files (https://doi.org/10.48579/PRO/XUSK8V) to facilitate the cartographic use of the data. To work directly with the exact locations of brown bear, capercaillie and other species capture events, please contact us directly. Insofar as the project is likely to continue, the present dataset may evolve, following the same protocol, being supplemented by additional years of data from one or more pastures. Although the raw data (pictures) are not made available, and since these data might be useful to some projects (e.g. species recognition software), it is possible to contact us to obtain the pictures, which are sorted by camera trap and by time period.
|This camera trap sampling is part of the project "Pastoralism and Bear in the Pyrenees" which aims to understand the interactions between humans and non-humans at the micro local scale of three mountain pastures. This dataset provides information on the spatio-temporal use of three pastures by twenty-two taxa, between 2021 and 2023.